Welcome to The Elephant Commentator. We hope you enjoy your visit.


You're currently viewing our forum as a guest. This means you are limited to certain areas of the board and there are some features you can't use. If you join our community, you'll be able to access member-only sections, and use many member-only features such as customizing your profile, sending personal messages, and voting in polls. Registration is simple, fast, and completely free.


Join our community!


If you're already a member please log in to your account to access all of our features:

Name:   Password:


*44 yr old African Elephant Alice dies at Winston's Wildlife Safari **Elephant Sabrina has died at the Naples Zoo, Italy ***32 yr old African Elephant Moja relocated from Pittsburgh Zoo to Winston OR Safari Park ****Elephant Bozie is suffering from an unidentified infection at The National Zoo
Pages: (2) 1 [2]  ( Go to first unread post )

 Elephants and PTSD, Elephants and PTSD
t&tt
Posted: Apr 30 2012, 09:55 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



"E" is for Elephant, "E" is for Extinction

The trauma doesn't go away, and the lessons from human history show that genocides such as what elephants are facing leaves scars on both the body and the brain.

http://www.animalsandsociety.org/blog/e-is...-for-extinction


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: May 9 2012, 04:25 AM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



Of Pachyderms and Paratroopers, 2009

Elephant and humans minds both falter in the face of life-threatening violence. But the real lesson goes deeper. What veterans have learned and elephants know makes them formidable allies in helping solve what has become a problem of epidemic proportions.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ga-bradshaw/...o_b_349107.html?


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: May 21 2012, 11:24 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



An explanation of how trauma/toxic stress damages the body by trauma expert, Dr. Gabor Mate. Think of the eles.

Dr. Mate: …Stress is a specific physiological event in the body. It’s not just a nervous tension that a person experiences. In fact you can experience nervous tension without the body being stressed. On the other hand the body can be stressed without you experiencing anything. You might not even be aware of it….

Q: Why is that…?

Dr. Mate: …This goes back to early childhood…when the stress mechanism shut down very early, though the awareness of stress is shut down very early, then stress becomes normal to you but you no longer experience it as stress. In other words that the awareness of it gets disconnected from consciousness; this has been shown in animals and human beings as well. In terms of the stress-immune connection it’s basically that…It’s complicated but not that complicated. …If you look at the role of emotions, the role of anger is to protect your boundaries. You get angry when your boundaries are threatened or invaded. The role of the immune system is also to protect our boundaries. The immune system recognizes a threat, and attacks it. When you suppress anger, given the physiological unity of all these systems, you end up suppressing the immune system as well. The immune system can put out chemicals that the brain can read. And the brain puts out chemicals that the immune system can read. So there’s this constant interaction between them. So whatever happens on the emotional plane immediately has its repercussions immunologically. And people who are stressed, for example, medical students under the stress of examinations, have been shown to have reduced level of the activity of an immune cell called “natural killer” cells. In other words they’re more prone to have infections at that point. The loneliest amongst them had the greatest decrease in the activity of natural killer cells. Women with breast cancer, who don’t know how to get angry, have less natural killer cell activity in their immune system. They are also more prone to die more quickly.

http://ww3.tvo.org/video/164342/gabor-mate...-peoples-health (2:23-4:17) - Gabor Mate on the hidden cost of stress on peoples' health. (Mar. 2011). TV Ontario.

Additional insights:
Compromised Survivorship in Zoo Elephants, 2008
http://www.helpelephants.com/pdf/SCIENCE%2...B%20ET%20AL.pdf
Harvard-Toxic Stress
http://z13.invisionfree.com/Elephant_Comme...ndpost&p=728670


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: Aug 13 2012, 01:29 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



Intergenerational Trauma, 2008 [videos, 24 mins total]

Good explanation about the different types of PTSD. Pertinent to the elephant experience.

Pt 1: http://tiny.cc/ig-trauma1
Pt 2: http://tiny.cc/ig-trauma2
Pt 3: http://tiny.cc/ig-trauma3

Also: Historical Trauma and Microaggressions: A Framework for ­Culturally-Based Practice, 2010

"Historical trauma is defined...as “a constellation of characteristics associated with massive cumulative group trauma across generations”.5 Historical trauma differs from from other types of trauma in that the traumatic event is shared by a collective group of people who experience the consequences of the event, as well as the fact that the impact of the trauma is held personally and can be transmitted over generations."

http://www.cmh.umn.edu/ereview/Oct10.html

"Neuroscience has demonstrated that all mammals share a ubiquitous developmental attachment mechanism and a common stress regulating neurophysiology. Now, a wealth of human–animal studies and the experiences of human victims of violence are available to help elephants and other species survive." Bradshaw, Schore, Brown, Poole, Moss. Elephant Breakdown. Nature, 2005.
http://allanschore.com/pdf/SchoreBradshawN...ntbreakdown.pdf

See also: The Cambridge Decalration on Consciousness, 2012

"On this day of July 7, 2012, a prominent international group of cognitive neuroscientists, neuropharmacologists, neurophysiologists, neuroanatomists and computational neuroscientists gathered at The University of Cambridge to reassess the neurobiological substrates of conscious experience and related behaviors in human and non-human animals."
http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDecl...nsciousness.pdf


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
Space4Eles
Posted: Aug 14 2012, 07:02 AM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 13,868
Member No.: 2
Joined: 30-August 11



Thanks, t&tt, for more valuable references.
"Historical trauma" is a very relevant subject - especially so I think for African elephants who find themselves in Western zoos having, as calves, survived the culling holocausts that were seen as "necessary" in the southern African states in the 1980s/1990s.
Looking at the databases for African elephants now confined in Western zoos, it is notable how many are aged around 30 and younger, originated in Kruger, and would have witnessed violent slaughter.

I wonder whether the zoo community takes any notice of these research findings - or even knows about them?
But then making a profit and respect for animals rarely go hand-in-hand ...


--------------------
"They need to move and have stimulation. They need to be browsing, foraging, socialising. They need to have reason for movement." Pat Derby, PAWS, on elephants' needs.
Top
t&tt
Posted: Aug 14 2012, 10:41 AM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



You're very welcome, s4e!

My suspicion is that many zoos are in a "convenient" denial about this knowledge. If they recognize it, they are in a conundrum because elephants are huge money-makers for zoos, as you pointed out. The direction of traumatology research has been/is validating how captivity is bad for other-animals but especially so for the "cognitive elite" like elephants, cetaceans, primates, et al. The only zoos that are "getting this" are the ones considering closing their elephant exhibits.

I think your observations are spot on especially the fact that 'historical trauma' is extremely relevant to our elephant kin. I would like to add that Thailand is at the center of having "colonized" Asian elephants. The routine cultural enslavment, practice of killing mothers for babies, and the practice of the tortuous phajaan for mind/body/soul-death programming so they can be used presently in entertaintment/tourism and previously logging and war efforts applies as well. And, of course, this applies to all elephants in zoos, circuses, and entertainment around the world.

See also Phajaan:
http://z13.invisionfree.com/Elephant_Comme...?showtopic=1225


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: Dec 24 2012, 07:19 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



A very important article from the New York Times on PTSD.

A New Focus on the ‘Post’ in Post-Traumatic Stress
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/25/science/...ma-victims.html


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: May 1 2013, 10:08 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



New research on human PTSD. I thought it worthy of a post.

Abused Children May Get Unique Form of PTSD

These genetic alterations are known as epigenetic changes: chemical differences that don’t mutate the DNA itself but affect how actively and efficiently the genes are made into proteins. By either silencing or activating genes, epigenetic changes can influence everything from brain development and functioning to the risk for certain diseases. While not necessarily permanent, some of these changes can last a lifetime and some can even be passed on to the next generation.

“In PTSD with a history of child abuse, we found a 12-fold higher [level] of epigenetic changes,” says Mehta. In contrast, people who experienced trauma later in life showed genetic effects that tended to be short-lived, and did not permanently alter the function of the genes....


http://healthland.time.com/2013/04/30/abus...t-form-of-ptsd/


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: Jul 10 2013, 05:08 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



New mammalian research.

Exposure to stress even before conception causes genetic changes to offspring
http://z13.invisionfree.com/Elephant_Comme...post&p=22511485


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
Space4Eles
Posted: Jul 11 2013, 03:40 AM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 13,868
Member No.: 2
Joined: 30-August 11



Thank you, t&tt, for adding more valuable links to the References forum.
It seems that the more we find out about the make-up of humans, the stronger our links are revealed with the animal kingdom - a kingdom which was, of course, occupying this planet long before the arrival of The Great Predator.


--------------------
"They need to move and have stimulation. They need to be browsing, foraging, socialising. They need to have reason for movement." Pat Derby, PAWS, on elephants' needs.
Top
Space4Eles
Posted: Nov 1 2013, 03:30 AM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 13,868
Member No.: 2
Joined: 30-August 11



Orphan Elephants Lack Social Knowledge Key for Survival

"The elephants who had grown up without the benefit of role models respond very differently to threats than do families with an older, experienced matriarch," Poole said.

In highly cognitive and social species, like elephants and primates, social trauma early in life can have major effects on development, the researchers reported, such as persistent fear, hyper-aggression, and infant abandonment.

"Such disruption appears capable of driving aberrant behaviors in social animals that are akin to the post-traumatic stress disorder experienced by humans following extremely traumatic events," the study noted.


http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/20...stress-animals/


--------------------
"They need to move and have stimulation. They need to be browsing, foraging, socialising. They need to have reason for movement." Pat Derby, PAWS, on elephants' needs.
Top
t&tt
Posted: Nov 5 2013, 11:50 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



Effects of chronic stress can be traced to your genes, PNAS

"New research shows that chronic stress changes gene activity in immune cells before they reach the bloodstream. With these changes, the cells are primed to fight an infection or trauma that doesn't actually exist, leading to an overabundance of the inflammation that is linked to many health problems.

"This is not just any stress, but repeated stress that triggers the sympathetic nervous system, commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, and stimulates the production of new blood cells. While this response is important for survival, prolonged activation over an extended period of time can have negative effects on health....

"What we see in this study is a convergence of animal and human data showing similar genomic responses to adversity," Cole said. "The molecular information from animal research integrates nicely with the human findings in showing a significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes as a consequence of stress – and not just experimental stress, but authentic environmental stressors humans experience in everyday life."


http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-11-effe...ress-genes.html

See:
Extract: Reply to Coyne: Genomic analyses are unthwarted
http://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/E4184.extract

A functional genomic perspective on human well-being
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/07/...0.full.pdf+html

This is cross-posted in Cost of Captivity.


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
t&tt
Posted: Mar 16 2014, 10:16 PM


Advanced Member


Group: Members
Posts: 1,811
Member No.: 5
Joined: 31-August 11



Elephants, Us, and Other Kin by Dr. Gay Bradshaw (26 min)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JB1XCbBJQs


--------------------
People "would rather have a comfortable reality than an accurate reality." - Psychologist & Lawyer, Dr. Bryant Welch
Top
0 User(s) are reading this topic (0 Guests and 0 Anonymous Users)
0 Members:
« Next Oldest | References | Next Newest »

Topic OptionsPages: (2) 1 [2] 



Hosted for free by InvisionFree* (Terms of Use: Updated 2/10/2010) | Powered by Invision Power Board v1.3 Final © 2003 IPS, Inc.
Page creation time: 0.1461 seconds | Archive